Justice AdministrationCategory: Objective Test
60-minute test administered during the NLC.
Objective Test Competencies: Corrections and Alternative Sanctions (Community Sentences, History and Current Information on Corrections and Prison Life); Courts and Adjudication (Prosecution and Defense, Pretrial Procedures, Criminal Trial and Punishment and Sentencing); Juvenile Justice System; Nature of Crime, Law, and Criminal Justice (Victimization, Substance & Procedure, and Current Justice Trends with Terrorism, Homeland Security, Cyber Crime); Police and Law Enforcement (History and Organization, Role and Function, Professional, Social, and Legal Issues); Basic Concepts
Skills: This event provides recognition for PBL members who can identify, understand, and demonstrate knowledge about general criminal justice concepts.
Objective Test Guidelines
- No materials may be brought to the testing site.
- Electronic devices must be turned off and out of sight.
- Financial calculators may be used for accounting, finance, and analysis & decision making events; calculators will be provided for all other events.
The general event guidelines below are applicable to all national competitive events. Please review and follow these guidelines when competing at the national level. When competing at the state level, check the state guidelines since they may differ.
- Dues: Competitors must have paid PBL national and state dues by 11:59 p.m. Eastern Time on April 15 of the current school year.
- NLC Registration: Participants must be registered for the NLC and pay the national conference registration fee in order to participate in competitive events.
- Deadlines: The state chair, or designee, must register each state competitor on the official online entry forms by 11:59 p.m. Eastern Time on the second Friday in May.
- Each state may submit three (3) individuals in all events requiring only objective tests and two (2) individuals or teams for all events that require a pre-judged or performance component.
- Each competitor can compete in two (2) events.
- Each competitor must compete in all parts of an event for award eligibility.
- A team shall consist of two or three members. Exceptions are Parliamentary Procedure which must be a team of four or five members, and LifeSmarts which must be a team of two members.
Competitors are not permitted to compete in an event more than once at the national level unless one of the following circumstances applies:
- Modified Events: A competitor may compete in the same event when the event is modified. Note, if the only modification is a name change, competitors may not compete in the renamed event.
- Team Events: One (1) competitor of the team may have competed in the same event at one (1) previous NLC; however, they may not compete more than twice in the event at the national level.
- Chapter Events: Competitors may compete in a chapter event more than once (Community Service Project).
- Individual Entry: A competitor who competed as an individual entry in a team event at the national level may compete in the same event a second time as part of a team, but not a second time as an individual.
- Parliamentary Procedure: Two (2) competitors of the team may have competed in this event at a previous NLC; however, they may not compete more than twice at the national level.
- Pilot Event: Competition in a pilot event does not disqualify a competitor from competing in the same event if it becomes an official competitive event. The participant may compete in another event as well as a pilot event.
- Objective Tests: Ties are broken by comparing the correct number of answers to the last 10 questions on the exam. If a tie remains, the competitor who completed the test in a shorter amount of time will place higher. If this does not break the tie, answers to the last 20 questions will be reviewed and determine the winner.
- Objective and Production Tests: The production test scores will be used to break a tie.
- Objective Tests and Performances: The objective test score will be used to break a tie based on the tie-breaking criteria of objective tests.
- Reports/Projects and Performances: The report/project scores will be used to break a tie.
- Performances: Judges must break ties and all judges’ decisions are final.
- State chair/adviser must register all competitors for NLC competitive events online by 11:59 p.m. Eastern Time on the second Friday in May.
- All prejudged components (report PDFs, resume/letter of application PDFs, and project URLs) must be received by 11:59 p.m. Eastern Time on the second Friday in May.
- All URLs and PDFs for prejudged projects and reports will be submitted by the state adviser via the competitive events registration form.
- All production tests must be received at FBLA-PBL by 11:59 p.m. Eastern Time on the third Friday in May.
- Desktop Publishing—the finished product must be uploaded in PDF format by 11:59 p.m. Eastern Time on the third Friday in May. Label all documents with the event title, competitor’s name, state, and school.
- All production tests must be uploaded online.
- State chair/adviser may make name changes only (no additional entries) by 11:59 p.m. Eastern Time on the first Friday in June. Competitor drops are the only changes allowed after this date and onsite.
The number of competitors will determine the number of winners. The maximum number of winners for each competitive event is 10. Only one (1) award is given to the schools competing in chapter events (Community Service Project and Local Chapter Annual Business Report).
- Financial calculators may be brought to objective testing and used for any accounting, finance, or analysis & decision making events.
- Certain events may allow the use of additional materials. Please refer to event guidelines.
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
FBLA‑PBL meets the criteria specified in the Americans with Disabilities Act for all participants who submit a special needs form.
Recording of Presentations
No unauthorized audio or video recording devices will be allowed in any competitive event. Participants in the performance events should be aware the national association reserves the right to record any performance for use in study or training materials.
Graduate students may compete in all PBL events.
- Dress for Success—Members must be in business attire. Please review the the FBLA-PBL Dress Code. If you question if you are properly attired, then change.
- Read and follow explicitly the state and national competitive events guidelines. Be aware of differences between state and national guidelines.
- Check the status of membership dues. Students must be dues-paid members by April 15 to compete in national competition. The sooner dues are paid the sooner members will receive PBL benefits.
- All materials must be received by the national center by the second Friday in May. Normally the state submits these materials, but some states request the local chapters submit their reports, website URLs, interview materials, etc.
- Remember, when competing at the district or state levels, materials are not sent to the national office.
- Become completely familiar with the procedures to be followed for participation in each type of event at the state and national levels.
- Determine from the rating sheets and guidelines the areas that will be judged and the weight given to each area.
- Obtain a variety of updated information on different subject areas and provide access to students for study.
- Contact former and current chapter members who have competed in previous years for suggestions.
- Find mentors and other experts who can help members prepare for competition. Involve faculty, advisory committee members, Professional Division members, businesspeople, community volunteers, and parents in study sessions and event preparation.
- Try to recreate as realistically as possible the conditions under which the competition will take place and PRACTICE.
- Make certain that the copies of materials to be submitted to judges are error-free and in the proper format.
- Make sure all materials are submitted by the deadline.
- PBL members and advisers must recognize the value of competitive events, maintain a professional attitude toward the events, and keep them in proper perspective. While competitive events are an important element of PBL’s overall program, events are just a portion of the many other activities and programs that build a successful organization.
- All objective tests are done online and consist of 100 multiple choice questions.
- Ask your professors to share with you the different textbooks they use as resources. Look over the end-of-chapter summary and the glossary words.
- Avoid talking to others as you enter the room.
- Instructions for online testing will be given to you once seated at a computer.
- The calculator function on the computer will be available for use. Financial calculators can be used for all accounting, finance, and “Analysis & Decision Making” events.
- If the equipment doesn’t work, raise your hand until help comes.
- The Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences
- The American Society of Criminology
- The Bureau of Prisons
- National Archive of Criminal Justice Data
- The National Center for Juvenile Justice
- National Institute of Justice
- University at Albany, Hindelang Criminal Justice Research Center
- U.S. Department of Justice
- United States Sentencing Commission
2. Evaluate past, present, and future trends pertaining to the development and operation of institutional and communitybased corrections.
3. Evaluate the trends pertaining to the development and use of classification and counseling approaches within the institutional and community-based correctional setting.
4. Apply theories from multiple disciplines (criminology, psychology, and counseling) to the investigation of micro and macro level issues pertinent to the offending population.
5. Evaluate current qualitative and quantitative research pertaining to offender assessment, counseling, corrections and treatment.
6. Evaluate trends pertaining to the development of various specialized offenders, including the juvenile offender.
7. Describe the history of the American corrections systems.
8. Discuss jails, prisons, local, state, and federal facilities.
9. Differentiate between the processes of probation and parole.
10. Identify the duties of personnel in correctional organizations.
11. Describe strategies for hiring and training entry level personnel in correctional positions.
12. Assess the strengths and weakness of various work schedules and assignments in correctional positions.
13. Describe the types of disciplinary procedures and sanctions that may be used by correctional agencies.
14. Explain the nature and impact of harassment in correctional agencies,
2. Describe the elements of a criminal trial.
3. Describe court organizations, functions, and procedures.
4. Describe the federal courts systems.
5. Articulate how burden of proof relates to a court trial.
6. . Explain the history of courts and arrangements of modern courts.
7. Define terms relevant to criminal litigation.
8. Organize files and documents and other exhibits used at trail or in pretrial proceedings.
9. Interview clients and witnesses.
10. Monitor client’s case and keep client informed.
11. Identify the types and purpose of evidence.
12. Describe the rules of evidence, “admissibility of evidence,” and “sufficiency of evidence.”
13. Discuss the nature, purpose, and legal framework of privileged information regarding evidence.
14. Discuss the roles of courtroom participants: judge, witnesses, court reporter, prosecuting attorney, and defense attorney.
15. Describe the roles and purposes of jurors, victims, court staff, and other participants.
16. Identify pretrial activities and post arrest procedures
17. Identify the steps in the trial process including jury selection, presentation of evidence, and verdict.
18. Identify effective tactics for responding to questioning during direct and cross examination.
19. Explain the types of bail and the bail process.
20. Describe the types of plea bargains.
21. Compare the types of punishment to the justifications for punishment.
22. Describe the process by which penalties are selected.
23. Describe the importance of appeals.
2. Discuss the history and origin of the juvenile justice system and the historical shifts in policies and treatment of juvenile delinquents.
3. Describe the various roles of police, juvenile court, juvenile probation, and juvenile corrections in the juvenile justice system.
4. Analyze the procedural aspects of the juvenile justice system
5. State the typical procedures and steps a juvenile offender undergoes in his/her progression through the system.
6. Examine changes (such as over representation of minorities in the juvenile justice system, waivers to adult court, death penalty, etc.) that have occurred within the juvenile system in the last twenty years.
7. Discuss the major theoretical perspectives related to the causes of juvenile delinquency and deviant behaviors
8. Identify major intervention strategies regarding juvenile justice and delinquency issues.
2. Identify the differences between criminal, civil, and administrative laws.
3. Explain the difference between procedural and substantive criminal law.
4. Describe the development of common law and of statutory law
5. Describe the process by which criminal laws are made
6. Explain the influence of common law on the American legal system.
7. Describe historic landmark cases that established criminal law in the US.
8. Describe how Constitutional Law affects the criminal justice system as applied to Supreme Court rulings.
9. llustrate an example of an ex post facto law.
10. Explain the concept of criminal liability.
11. Explain the concept of criminal liability.
12. Describe the elements of certain crimes.
13. Classify the different degrees of misdemeanors and felonies.
14. Describe the concepts of criminal attempt, conspiracy and solicitation to commit a crime.
15. Discuss elements and punishments of crimes against persons.
16. Discuss elements and punishments of crimes against propert
17. Describe elements and punishments of crimes involving drugs.
18. Identify the criteria necessary to classify a criminal act as a “Hate Crime”.
19. Discuss the “drug war” and its impact on criminal justice administration.
20. Identify the characteristics and mentality of gang members.
21. Identify gang reduction initiatives, policies and programs.
22. Define terrorism and describe the characteristics of terrorism and terrorists.
23. Explain the difference between domestic, international and single issue terrorism.
24. Describe the relationship between gangs and terrorism.
25. Examine the purpose and function of the US Homeland Security Department.
26. Discuss the impact of immigration laws on the issuance of immigrant and non-immigrant
2. Apply the constitution, the amendments and civil liability to specific situations police confront.
3. Evaluate past, present, and future trends pertaining to the development and operation of the field of law enforcement.
4. Discuss the history of policing.
5. Discuss the role of law enforcement and their responsibilities.
6. Identify the legal requirements for probable cause, reasonable suspicion, stop and frisk, laws of arrest and search and seizure.
7. Identify the circumstances under which a peace officer is authorized to: detain a person, arrest without an arrest warrant, arrest with an arrest warrant, search and seize without a search warrant, and search and seize with a search warrant.
8. Identify the circumstances under which a peace officer is authorized to: detain a person, arrest without an arrest warrant, arrest with an arrest warrant, search and seize without a search warrant, and search and seize with a search warrant.
9. Describe what constitutes a legal search.
10. Identify the parameters of a lawful arrest.
11. Discuss the scope of the right to counsel.
12. Discuss interrogation and self-incrimination
13. Describe situations in which admission and/or confessions are legally obtained.
14. Describe on-duty and off-duty roles.
15. Relate management concepts to police organization and administration specifically
16. Evaluate issues of integrity, ethics, and police leadership.
17. Identify the legal requirements for the use of a lineup, photographic lineup, or show-up
18. Describe the chain of custody from time of discovery until submitted to the court.
19. Identify effective procedures for responding to, calming and restoring order and resolving family violence, domestic disputes and disturbances.
20. Identify the characteristics of the cycle of violence.
21. Identify effective methods of soliciting information from suspects, witnesses, and victims.
22. Identify effective methods for obtaining a valid physical description of a suspect from a victim or witness.
23. Explain the function of law enforcement from the transfer of a case to adjudication.
24. Describe terms and concepts associated with traffic offenses
25. Describe the typical progression of an adult through the law enforcement system.
2. Describe the basic functions of the three components of the criminal justice system.
3. Discuss the organization and operation of administration of justice agencies.
4. Describe the evolution of the administration of justice system, its objectives, role expectations and trends.
5. pply knowledge of causal theories, criminal behavior and implications of crime statistics.
6. Describe the role of technology in facilitating or hindering communications within criminal justice organizations.
7. Describe and apply methods of identify and solving management and organizational performance problems.
8. Discuss the history and relationships between the criminal justice system components.
9. Apply legal terminology to specific situations.
10. Characterize specific areas of ethical dilemmas in legal professions, to include but not limited to corruption, abuse of power and authority, violations of civil rights, sexual misconduct etc.
11. Characterize specific areas of ethical dilemmas in the criminal justice system: corruption, racial discrimination, deception, sentencing, the death penalty, etc.
12. Contrast present day criminal justice traditions and practices with their historical precedents and beginnings.